Passiv

Passiv og dets funktion

Passiv bruges til at vise interesse i den person eller ting, som undergår en handling frem for den person eller ting, der udfører handlingen. Sagt med andre ord bliver den vigtigste person eller ting grundled i sætningen.

Eksempler
  • The passive voice is used frequently. (= vi er interesserede i den passive stemme, ikke i hvem, der bruger den.)
  • The house was built in 1654. (= vi er interesserede i huset, ikke i hvem, der byggede det.)
  • The road is being repaired. (= vi er interesserede i vejen, ikke i de personer, der udfører reparationerne.)

Nogle gange bruger vi passiv, fordi vi ikke ved eller ikke vil udtrykke, hvem der udførte handlingen.

Eksempler
  • I noticed that a window had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the cookies have been eaten.
  • My car has been stolen!

Passiv bruges ofte i formelle tekster. Hvis du skriver i aktiv, vil det være tydeligere og nemmere at læse.

Passiv Aktiv
A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.
Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. A mass of gases wrap around our planet.
Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.

Hvis vi vil sige, hvem eller hvad der udfører handlingen i passiv, bruger vi forholdsordet by. Når vi ved, hvem der udførte handlingen og er interesserede i ham, er det altid bedre at skifte til aktiv.

Passiv Aktiv
"A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles. The Beatles wrote "A Hard Day's Night".
The movie ET was directed by Spielberg. Spielberg directed the movie ET.
This house was built by my father. My father built this house.

Læs mere om passiv og dets aktive ækvivalenter for alle engelske tider.

Dannelse af passiv

Passiv på engelska dannes af to elementer:
den passende form af udsagnsordet 'to be' + førnutid tillægsform

Bekræftende Negativ Spørgende Negativ spørgende
The house was built in 1899. The house wasn't built in 1899. Was the house built in 1899? Wasn't the house built in 1899?
These houses were built in 1899. These houses weren't built in 1899. Were these houses built in 1899? Weren't these houses built in 1899?
To clean, passiv
Grundled + to be (bøjet) + førnutid tillægsform + resten af sætningen
Simple present
The house is cleaned every day.
Present continuous
The house is being cleaned at the moment.
Simple past
The house was cleaned yesterday.
Past continuous
The house was being cleaned last week.
Present perfect
The house has been cleaned since you left.
Past perfect
The house had been cleaned before they arrived.
Fremtid
The house will be cleaned next week.
Fremtid continuous
The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.
Present conditionalis
The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.
Past conditionalis
The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.
Navnemåde
The house must be cleaned before we arrive.
Passiv med navnemåde

Passiv med navnemåde bruges efter mådesudsagnsord eller andre udsagnsord, der normalt bliver efterfulgt af en navnemåde.

Eksempler
  • You have to be tested on your English grammar.
  • John might be promoted next year.
  • She wants to be invited to the party.
  • I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
  • You may be disappointed.
Passiv med gerundium

Gerundium bruges efter forholdsord og udsagnsord, der normalt bliver efterfulgt af en gerundium.

Eksempler
  • I remember being taught to drive.
  • The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
  • The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
  • Most film stars hate being interviewed.
  • Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
  • Poodles like to be pampered.
  • Poodles like being pampered.
Brugen af "to be born"

"To be born" er en passiv form, som oftest bruges i datid. Men i nogle tilfælde kan den bruges i nutid eller fremtid.

Eksempler
  • I was born in 1976.
  • Where were you born?
  • Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.
  • We don't know on exactly which day the baby will be born.

Nogle gange dannes passiv ved hjælp af udsagnsordet to get eller to have i stedet for udsagnsordet to be. Der er en selvstændig side, der behandler disse alternative måder at danne passiv på.