Type 3 Konditionalis

Form

I sætninger med type 3 konditionalis er tiden i 'if' bisætningen førdatid (past perfect) og i hovedsætningen perfektum konditionalis (perfect conditional) eller udvidet perfektum konditionalis (perfect continuous conditional).

If bisætning (betingelse) Hovedsætning (resultat)
If + førdatid (past perfect) perfektum konditionalis (perfect conditional) eller udvidet perfektum konditionalis (perfect continuous conditional)
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Som i alle konditionale sætninger er rækkefølgen i sætningerne ikke fast. Du skal måske rokere rundt på stedordene og justere tegnsætningen, når du ændrer rækkefølgen i sætningerne, men betydningen er den samme.

Eksempler
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Funktion

Type 3 konditionalis henviser til en umulig tilstand i fortiden og dens sandsynlige resultat i fortiden. Disse sætninger er fuldt ud hypotetiske og uvirkelige, fordi det er for sent for tilstanden eller resultatet af denne at eksistere. Der er altid en hentydning af fortrydelse i sætninger med type 3 konditionalis. Virkeligheden er det modsatte af eller står i modsætningen til det disse sætninger udtrykker. I sætninger med type 3 konditionalis er tiden datid og situation hypotetisk.

Eksempler
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

I sætninger med type 3 konditionalis kan du også bruge mådesudsagnsord i hovedsætningen i stedet for "would" til at udtrykke graden af sikkerhed, tilladelse eller anbefaling om udfaldet.

Eksempler
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Sammentrækninger

Både would og had kan sammentrækkes til 'd, hvilket kan være forvirrende, hvis du ikke er sikker på, hvordan sætninger med type 3 konditionalis bruges. Husk 2 regler:
1. would står aldrig i if-bisætningen, så hvis 'd står i bisætningen, er det en forkortelse af had.
2. had står aldrig før have, so hvis 'd står efter et stedord lige før have, er det en forkortelse for would.

Eksempler
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Perfektum konditionalis (perfect conditional)

Alle udsagnsord i perfektum konditionalis består af tre elementer:
would + have + kort tillægsform (past participle)
Have efterfulgt af kort tillægsform bruges også i andre konstruktioner. Den kaldes "perfect infinitive" (perfektum navnemåde).

Grundled + would + have + kort tillægsform
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: perfektum konditionalis
Bekræftende Nægtende Spørgende Spørgende nægtende
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?