I sætninger med type 3 konditionalis er tiden i 'if' bisætningen førdatid (past perfect) og i hovedsætningen perfektum konditionalis (perfect conditional) eller udvidet perfektum konditionalis (perfect continuous conditional).
|If bisætning (betingelse)||Hovedsætning (resultat)|
|If + førdatid (past perfect)||perfektum konditionalis (perfect conditional) eller udvidet perfektum konditionalis (perfect continuous conditional)|
|If this thing had happened||that thing would have happened.|
Som i alle konditionale sætninger er rækkefølgen i sætningerne ikke fast. Du skal måske rokere rundt på stedordene og justere tegnsætningen, når du ændrer rækkefølgen i sætningerne, men betydningen er den samme.
- If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
- You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
- You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
- If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
- I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
- If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.
Type 3 konditionalis henviser til en umulig tilstand i fortiden og dens sandsynlige resultat i fortiden. Disse sætninger er fuldt ud hypotetiske og uvirkelige, fordi det er for sent for tilstanden eller resultatet af denne at eksistere. Der er altid en hentydning af fortrydelse i sætninger med type 3 konditionalis. Virkeligheden er det modsatte af eller står i modsætningen til det disse sætninger udtrykker. I sætninger med type 3 konditionalis er tiden datid og situation hypotetisk.
- If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
- If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
- I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)
I sætninger med type 3 konditionalis kan du også bruge mådesudsagnsord i hovedsætningen i stedet for "would" til at udtrykke graden af sikkerhed, tilladelse eller anbefaling om udfaldet.
- If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
- You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
- If he called you, you could go.
- If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Både would og had kan sammentrækkes til 'd, hvilket kan være forvirrende, hvis du ikke er sikker på, hvordan sætninger med type 3 konditionalis bruges. Husk 2 regler:
1. would står aldrig i if-bisætningen, så hvis 'd står i bisætningen, er det en forkortelse af had.
2. had står aldrig før have, so hvis 'd står efter et stedord lige før have, er det en forkortelse for would.
- If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
- If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
- I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
- I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
- If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
- If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.
Perfektum konditionalis (perfect conditional)
Alle udsagnsord i perfektum konditionalis består af tre elementer:
would + have + kort tillægsform (past participle)
Have efterfulgt af kort tillægsform bruges også i andre konstruktioner. Den kaldes "perfect infinitive" (perfektum navnemåde).
|Grundled||+ would||+ have||+ kort tillægsform|
To Go: perfektum konditionalis
|I would have gone||I wouldn't have gone||Would I have gone?||Wouldn't I have gone?|
|You would have gone||You wouldn't have gone||Would you have gone?||Wouldn't you have gone?|
|He would have gone||He wouldn't have gone||Would he have gone?||Wouldn't he have gone?|
|She would have gone||She wouldn't have gone||Would she have gone?||Wouldn't she have gone?|
|We would have gone||We wouldn't have gone||Would we have gone?||Wouldn't we have gone?|
|They would have gone||They wouldn't have gone||Would they have gone?||Wouldn't they have gone?|