Gerundium

Gerundium ligner lang tillægsform på en prik, men det er vigtigt at forstå forskellen mellem de to. Gerundium har altid den samme funktion som et navneord (selvom den ligner et udsagnsord). Denne side forklarer nogle af gerundiums funktioner. Der er en separat side der behandler udsagnsord, som bliver efterfulgt af gerundium.

Gerundium som grundled i sætningen
Eksempler
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Hunting tigers is dangerous.
  • Flying makes me nervous.
  • Brushing your teeth is important.
  • Smoking causes lung cancer.
Gerundium som komplement til udsagnsordet 'to be'
Eksempler
  • One of his duties is attending meetings.
  • The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.
  • One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.
Gerundium efter forholdsord

Gerundium skal bruges, når et udsagnsord kommer efter et forholdsord. Dette gælder også for visse udtryk, der ender med et forholdsord, for eksempel udtrykkene in spite of & there's no point in.

Eksempler
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
  • My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.
  • There's no point in waiting.
  • In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.
Gerundium efter frasalverber

Frasalverber består af et udsagnsord + forholdsord eller biord.

Eksempler
  • When will you give up smoking?
  • She always puts off going to the dentist.
  • He kept on asking for money.
  • Jim ended up buying a new TV after his old one broke.

Der er nogle frasalverber, som indeholder ordet "to" som et forholdsord, for eksempler to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to get around to, & to be used to. Det er vigtigt at kunne genkende, at ordet "to" er et forholdsord i disse tilfælde, fordi det skal efterfølges af gerundium formen. Det er ikke en del af udsagnsordets navnemåde. Du kan tjekke om "to" er et forholdsord eller en del af navnemåden. Hvis du kan sætte stedordet "it" efter "to" og danne en meningsfuld sætning, så er "to" et forholdsord, og så skal det efterfølges af gerundium.

Eksempler
  • I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  • I look forward to it.
  • I am used to waiting for buses.
  • I am used to it.
  • She didn't really take to studying English.
  • She didn't really take to it.
  • When will you get around to mowing the grass?
  • When will you get around to it?
Gerundium i sammensatte navneord

I sammensatte navneord, som bruger gerundium, er det tydeligt at den har betydning som et navneord, ikke et udsagnsord i udvidet form. For eksempel ordet "swimming pool" om en pool, som man kan svømme i, ikke en pool, der svømmer.

Examples
  • I am giving Sally a driving lesson.
  • They have a swimming pool in their back yard.
  • I bought some new running shoes.
Gerundium efter visse udtryk

Gerundium er nødvendig efter udtrykkene can't help, can't stand, to be worth, & it's no use.

Eksempler
  • She couldn't help falling in love with him.
  • I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams.
  • It's no use trying to escape.
  • It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.