Lang tillægsform (Present participle)

De fleste udsagnsord danner lang tillægsform på følgende måde: stammen+ing. Den bruges på mange forskellige måder.

Lang tillægsform som en del af udsagnsordets udvidede form
Eksempler
  • I am working.
  • He was singing.
  • They have been walking.
  • We will be staying.
  • She would have been expecting me.
Lang tillægsform efter bevægelses- & positionsudsagnsord

This construction is particularly useful with the verb to go.

Eksempler
  • She went shopping.
  • I go running every morning.
  • He lay looking up at the clouds.
  • She came running towards me.
Lang tillægsform efter opfattelsesudsagnsord

Strukturen for denne brug er udsagnsord + genstandsled + lang tillægsform. I disse sætninger er der en mellem en zero navnemåde og en lang tillægsform. Navnemåden henviser til en fuldført handling, men lang tillægsmåde henviser til en igangværende handling.

Eksempler
  • I heard someone singing.
  • He saw his friend walking along the road.
  • I can smell something burning!
  • I watched the birds flying away.
Lang tillægsform som et tillægsord
Eksempler
  • It was an amazing film.
  • Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
  • He was trapped inside the burning house.
  • Many of his paintings show the setting sun.
Lang tillægsform med udsagnsordene spend og waste

Disse udsagnsord følger følgende mønster: udsagnsord + tids-/pengeudtryk + lang tillægsform.

Eksempler
  • My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.
  • Don't waste time playing computer games!
  • They've spent the whole day shopping.
  • I wasted money buying this game.
Lang tillægsform med udsagnsordene catch og find

Disse udsagnsord følger følgende mønster: udsagnsord + genstandsled + lang tillægsform. Med catch henviser lang tillægsform altid til en handling, som forårsager irritation eller vrede. Det er ikke tilfældet med find, som er uemotionel.

Eksempler
  • If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble!
  • Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
  • I caught him going through my bag.
  • We found some money lying on the ground.
  • They found their mother sitting in the garden.
Lang tillægsform med to parallelle handlinger på samme tid

Når to handlinger foregår på samme tid, og det er den samme person eller ting, der foretager dem, kan vi bruge lang tillægsform til at beskrive en af dem. Når en handling følger meget hurtigt lige efter en anden, og det er samme person eller ting der foretager dem, kan vi bruge lang tillægsform til at udtrykke den første handling.

Eksempler
  • Whistling to himself, he walked down the road. = He whistled to himself as he walked down the road.
  • They went laughing out into the snow. = They laughed as they went out into the snow.
  • Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air. = She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air.
  • Putting on his coat, he left the house. = He put on his coat and left the house.
Lang tillægsform til at forklare en grund

Lang tillægsform kan bruges i stedet for en frase, der indledes med as, since eller because. Ved denne brug forklarer den lange tillægsform grunden eller årsagen til en handling.

Eksempler
  • Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
  • Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
  • Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
  • He whispered, thinking his brother was still asleep.