Biord der udtrykker grad | Engelsk Grammatik | EF

Biord der udtrykker grad

Biord, der udtrykker grad, fortæller os intensiteten af noget. Biord, der udtrykker grad, står typisk før det tillægsord, biord eller udsagnsord, som de modificerer, selvom der er visse undtagelser. Ordene "too", "enough", "very", og "extremely" er eksempler på biord, der udtrykker grad.

Biord der udtrykker grad Modificerer Eksempel
extremely tillægsord The water was extremely cold.
quite tillægsord The movie is quite interesting.
just udsagnsord He was just leaving.
almost udsagnsord She has almost finished.
very biord She is running very fast.
too biord You are walking too slowly.
enough biord You are running fast enough.

Brugen af "enough"

Enough kan både bruges som biord og som determinativ.

Enough som biord

Enough som biord betyder 'til den nødvendige grad' og står efter det tillægsord eller biord, som det modificerer, og ikke før som andre biord. Det kan både bruges i positive og negative sætninger.

Eksempler
  • Is your coffee hot enough?
  • This box isn't big enough.
  • He didn't work hard enough.
  • I got here early enough.

Enough bliver ofte efterfulgt af "to" + navnemåde.

Eksempler
  • He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam.
  • Is your coffee hot enough to drink?
  • She's not old enough to get married.
  • I got here early enough to sign up.

Enough kan også bliver efterfulgt af "for nogen" eller "for noget".

Eksempler
  • The dress was big enough for me.
  • She's not experienced enough for this job.
  • Is the coffee hot enough for you?
  • He didn't work hard enough for a promotion.
Enough som determinativ

Enough som determinativ betyder 'så meget/many som nødvendigt' og står før det navneord, som det modificerer. Det bruges sammen med flertalsformen af tællelige navneord og utællelige navneord.

Eksempler
  • We have enough bread.
  • You have enough children.
  • They don't have enough food.
  • I don't have enough apples.

Brugen af "too"

"Too" er altid et biord, men det har to forskellige betydninger, med hver sit eget brugsmønster.

Too is betydningen "også"

Too som biord i betydningen "også" står i slutningen af den sætningen, det modificerer.

Eksempler
  • I would like to go swimming too, if you will let me come.
  • Can I go to the zoo too?
  • Is this gift for me too?
  • I'm not going to clean your room too!
Too i betydningen "overdrevent"

Too som biord i betydningen "overdrevent" står før det tillægsord eller biord, det modificerer. Det kan både bruges i bekræftende og negative sætninger.

Eksempler
  • This coffee is too hot.
  • He works too hard.
  • Isn't she too young?
  • I am not too short!

Too bliver ofte efterfulgt af "to" + navnemåde.

Eksempler
  • The coffee was too hot to drink.
  • You're too young to have grandchildren!
  • I am not too tired to go out tonight.
  • Don't you work too hard to have any free time?

Too kan også blive efterfulgt af "for nogen" eller "for noget".

Eksempler
  • The coffee was too hot for me.
  • The dress was too small for her.
  • He's not too old for this job.
  • Sally's not too slow for our team.

Brugen af "very"

Very står før det biord eller tillægsord, som det forstærker.

Eksempler
  • The girl was very beautiful.
  • The house is very expensive.
  • He worked very quickly.
  • She runs very fast.

Hvis vi vil lave en negativ form af et tillægsord eller biord, kan vi tilføje "not" til udsagnsordet, vi kan bruge et tillægsord eller biord med modsat betydning, eller vi kan bruge "not very" sammen med det oprindelige tillægsord eller biord. Sætningerne har forskellige betydninger. Oftest er sætningen med "not very" mindre direkte og dermed mere høflig end de andre sætninger.

Eksempler
Oprindelig sætning Modsat betydning med "not" Modsat betydning med "not very" Modsat betydning med et ord med modsat betydning
The girl was beautiful. The girl was not beautiful. The girl was not very beautiful. The girl was ugly.
He worked quickly. He did not work quickly. He did not work very quickly. He worked slowly.
Forskel i betydning mellem "very" og "too"

Der er stor betydningsforskel mellem "too" og "very". "Very" udtrykker et faktum, mens "too" indikerer, at der er et problem.

Eksempler
  • He speaks very quickly.
  • He speaks too quickly for me to understand.
  • It is very hot outside.
  • It is too hot outside to go for a walk.
Andre biord, der bruges på samme måde som "very"

Nogle almindelige biord bruges på samme måde som "very" til at forstærke tillægsord og biord.

Expressing very strong feelings Expressing strong feelings Expressing somewhat doubtful feelings
extremely, terribly, amazingly, wonderfully, insanely especially, particularly, uncommonly, unusually, remarkably, quite pretty, rather, fairly, not especially, not particularly
The movie was amazingly interesting. The movie was particularly interesting. The movie was fairly interesting.
She sang wonderfully well. She sang unusually well. She sang pretty well.
The lecture was terribly boring. The lecture was quite boring. The lecture was rather boring.

Inversion med negative biord

Normalt står grundleddet før udsagnsleddet, men nogle negative biord kan skabe inversion (omvendt ordstilling), når de står i begyndelsen af en sætning. Rækkefølgen ændres, udsagnsleddet kommer til at stå før grundleddet. Denne inversion bliver kun brugt i skriftsprog, ikke i talesprog.

Biord Normal ordstilling Inversion
Never I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.
Rarely She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.
Not only She did not only the cooking but the cleaning as well. Not only did she do the cooking, but the cleaning as well.
Scarcely I scarcely closed the door before he started talking. Scarcely did I close the door before he started talking.
Seldom We seldom cross the river after sunset. Seldom do we cross the river sunset.